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Teacher training

Teacher training is provided at the following teacher training institutions at three levels. Provincial Teacher Training Centers (PTTCs) in 17 major provinces train primary school teachers. Regional Teacher Training Centers (RTTCs) in the six educational regions into which the country is divided, train lower secondary school teachers. Graduates from upper secondary schools are qualified to take a two-year course at PTTCs and RTTCs. The Facu1ty of Pedagogy (FOP) trains graduates of Phnom Penh University to be upper secondary teachers in a one-year course.

Educational administrative system

The Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport (MoEYS) has education offices in 23 provinces. Each education office serves as an agency for educational administration in its province. Each province, depending on its size, has a department in charge modeled after the structure of the MoEYS.

Education System Development

Education began making a slow comeback, following the establishment of the PRK. In 1986 the following main institutions of higher education were reported in the PRK: the Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy (reopened in 1980 with a six-year course of study); the Chamcar Daung Faculty of Agriculture (opened in 1985); the Kampuchea-USSR Friendship Technical Institute (which includes technical and engineering curricula), the Institute of Languages (Vietnamese, German, Russian, and Spanish are taught); the Institute of Commerce, the Center for Pedagogical Education (formed in 1979); the Normal Advanced School; and the School of Fine Arts. Writing about the educational system under the PRK, Vickery states, "Both the government and the people have demonstrated enthusiasm for education . . . . The list of subjects covered is little different from that of prewar years. There is perhaps more time devoted to Khmer language and literature than before the war and, until the 1984-85 school year, at least, no foreign language instruction." He notes that the secondary school syllabus calls for four hours of foreign language instruction per week in either Russian, German, or Vietnamese but that there were no teachers available.

Quality and Effeciency of Education

The Royal Government of Cambodia is promoting the quality of education to satisfy the basic education and professional needs for the careers of the learners to better improve their capacity and to enable the learners to efficiently participate in the development of the country.

Administration and Management of Education

The hierarchy of administration and management of education in Cambodia consist of 4 levels which are (1) the national or central level, (2) the provincial or municipal level, (3) the district or Khan level and (4) the educational institution level. The structure of the hierarchy of administration and management of education is stipulated in a separate regulation.

Non-formal Education

Complying with the policy of the Royal Government on human resource development, which stipulates: "The main approach for human resource development is to develop human resources with good health, knowledge and a high level of culture…"

Vocational and Technical Training Education in Cambodia

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Vocational and technical training education cover all professions and skills provided by public and private technical and vocational education and training institutions, enterprises, communities, family or in co-operation between technical and vocational education and training institutions and enterprises and/or communities and family.

Secondary Education in Cambodia

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Secondary Education in Cambodia is the the second level (2nd Phumaseksar) of education comprised of grade 7 (seven) to grade 12 (twelve). The secondary education consists of 2 (two) phases: phase 1 (one) is the lower secondary education comprising grade 7 (seven) to grade 9 (nine), and phase 2 (two) is the upper secondary school comprising grade 10 (ten) to grade 12 (twelve).

Primary Education in Cambodia

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Primary education or the first level (1st Phumaseksar) of education comprised of grade 1(one) to grade 6 (six) of the formal education program or the equivalent level of education.

History

The Primary education was divided into two cycles of three years each, was carried out in state-run and temple-run schools. Successful completion of a final state examination led to the award of a certificate after each cycle. The primary education curriculum consisted of arithmetic, history, ethics, civics, drafting, geography, hygiene, language, and science. In addition, the curriculum included physical education and manual work. French language instruction began in the second year. Khmer was the language of instruction in the first cycle, but French was used in the second cycle and thereafter. By the early 1970s, Khmer was used more widely in primary education. In the 1980s, primary school ran from the first to the fourth grade. Theoretically one primary school served each village.

International Schools in Cambodia

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By government definition: “An international school is an educational institution providing an international curriculum or international curriculum which its subject’s detail has been adjusted or a self-organized curriculum, which is not the Ministry of Education’s. A foreign language is used as the medium of teaching and learning and students are enrolled without restriction or limitation on nationality or religion or government regime, and are not against the morality or stability of Cambodia.” The curriculum is required to be approved by the Ministry of Education and may be an international one, an international curriculum with modifications, or a curriculum established by the school itself. Khmer language and culture constitutes a core subject and is mandatory at every level for all students; Cambodian students are required to study at least five 50-minutes periods a week, while non-Cambodian students must receive a minimum of instruction of one period per week. Interntional schools must operate within a framework of requirements and conditions established by the Ministry of Education, that stipulates the ownership, location and size of the plot, design and structure of buildings, ratio of students to classroom surface, sanitary installations, administration and educational support facilities such as libraries and resources centres. Within one year from their commencement, primary and secondary schools must apply accreditation from an international organization recognized and accepted by the Office of the Private Education Commission and accreeditation must be granted within six years. Managers and head teachers must be of Cambodian nationality;

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